Thursday, January 28, 2016

Combating human trafficking through health system improvement

Mofor Samuel

Cameroonians are still to come to terms with hair splitting stories of victims of human trafficking enticed and deceived into believing that a brighter future awaits them in the Middle East and Kuwait in particular. Young Cameroonian girls, most of them graduates particularly in the health sector, were lured into believing that golden employment opportunities, comfortable financial packages and other non-financial incentives would characterize their working condition.  
    Messages like this one were often posted on poles and strategic points or ran like strips on television stations: If you are between 18 and 24 years old, like to work in the Middle East, and want to get between $6,000,000 and $20,000,000 in a year, pay attention. We are offering: A round-trip place ticket; A work visa to Kuwait, Dubai, UAE etc; Housing; Transport allowance; Advice on the law; Contract for 24 month’s work etc. Such messages often end with contact numbers for those interested to call for enquiries. Several families were forced to sell their only landed property to fulfill the financial conditions to enable their daughters to fly to the Middle East as they saw gold waiting for them at the end of the tunnel. Some even went for loans with the sure hope that once their children get settled down in their new destination, the loans will be taken care of. Not until CRTV’s prime time programme Cameroon Calling unleashed the bomb shell of the ordeals that victims went through once they touched down in their respective destinations. Victims come face to face with the grim reality that they were being trafficked and have to dance to the music of their owners. These young women were forced to work excruciating long hours with no money and no chance to rest.
    Victims of trafficking are often dumped in unsafe or illegal living and working conditions. Far from home, their personal identities, passports, birth certificates, identification cards, and address books are also being confiscated once they arrive at their destinations. Next, they endure physical abuse, ranging from punching, slapping, choking, pulling hair, body kicking, forced sex, and often involving the use of dangerous weapons such as guns or knives. The victims repeatedly suffer emotional and psychological abuse — i.e., their captors will threaten to hurt their families back home, threaten to turn them over to police or immigration officers, destroy their personal property, humiliate and demean them, or force them to commit illegal acts.
They are not allowed to have outside contact with family and friends. They are forbidden to go outside, to make phone calls, write letters, or see the light of day, except perhaps through a dimmed barred window. Many of them sleep on the floor, on the corridor sometimes with animals.
     The major reasons for the persistence of the ugly phenomenon of human trafficking in Cameroon include pervasive poverty in the society especially at the family level, the frightening problem of unemployment among the population particularly the youths, and ignorance of the prospective victims of human trafficking about their fate in foreign countries. Some other reasons include bad leadership that has failed to improve the welfare of the citizens thereby resulting in mass disillusionment and the urge by many citizens to leave the country in search for green pastures; the abuse of traditional method of fostering children and get-rich-quick syndrome in contemporary Cameroonian society.
     The escalation of the incidence of human trafficking in Cameroon began in 1990s as a result of decline in Cameroon’s economy which gave rise to pervasive poverty at family level; frightening unemployment; deterioration of social infrastructure; low wages, soaring prices of goods and consequent social misery among the population. This situation provoked the urge amongst many Cameroonians to immigrate to foreign countries to seek better life and favourable economic opportunities.
    Perhaps at this juncture, it is necessary to understand what human trafficking is all about before delving into its consequences.
    Simply put, it is the recruitment, transportation, transfer labour receipt of a person through deception, force, coercion to a strange place within or across borders for the purpose of retraining such a person in a situation of enslavement, servitude or debt bondage.   The effects of human trafficking paint a very negative image of Cameroon internationally. Some of the negative consequences of human trafficking on the country’s image are:
-          It creates the erroneous impression that the country is incapable of providing for her citizens especially in terms of employment and social welfare, hence the exodus of her able-bodied youths to foreign countries
-          It exposes some Cameroonians to all forms of inhuman treatment in foreign countries. These include physical assault, rape, detention and in some extreme cases execution. Many are also known to be languishing in prisons in some countries of the world due to the misadventure associated with human trafficking.
-          It gives rise to frequent deportation of Cameroonians from foreign countries.
-          It portrays Cameroon as a country in throes of political and economic crises.
-          Brain drain which is another dimension of ‘human trafficking’ deprives the country of the high-skilled manpower needed for rapid national development. Ibekwe (2010) summarized the negative effects of brain drain on developing countries, including Cameroon as follows: “Brain drain in developing countries has financial, institutional and social costs: little return from their investments in higher education; increasing dependency on foreign expertise due to dwindling professional sector; diminishing ability of several developing countries to offer basic health care services to their subjects; widening gap in science and technology between the richer and poor countries; crumbling middle class population; failing tax system and disappearance of jobs and society”.
    On the other hand, Cameroon’s health care and education sectors have been in deplorable state partly due to inadequate number of experts as a result of the effect of brain drain.” In the case of the health sector, Cameroon needs some 36,000 health workers to meet up her demand in human resources for health. In fact training and sustaining health workers in Cameroon just like many sub-Saharan African countries is a major problem begging for an immediate solution.     According to World Health Report (2006), a minimum of 2.3 health workers per 1000 population is required to meet the health needs of the MDGs.
    The inadequate funding of health systems in Africa (including Cameroon) has resulted in unsafe and unsupported working conditions for health professionals. Much of the current HRH crisis in Cameroon can be attributed to low government spending on health – a mere 4.6% and 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2000 and 2012.
    The lack of basic equipments and regular drugs combined with many districts having less than $1 per person per year to spend on health care services reduces the ability of health workers to carry out their jobs effectively.
Inadequate retention, management and training characterized by low salaries, limited opportunities for career development and the lack of support and supervision are all contributory factors to brain drain in Cameroon as far as the health sector is concerned. On the other hand, most health workers are trained for individual performance and not for the team-based approach on the recognition that health is produced with others, whether they are professionals from different backgrounds or as members of the community. Team work with other sectors or communities are capabilities or skills developed during pre-graduate training. They are exceptionally addressed in most graduate health courses. The reductionist and wrong perspective that human resources for health are only those involved in curative, disease-centred and care institution still persists.
    Government should allocate sufficient internal resources to health in order to ensure the essentials and priorities established. Furthermore, since human resources require new capacities, the health work force needs to address new social, environmental and sanitary problems with an inter disciplinary approach and therefore, new competence and skills have to be developed to address situations encountered in the areas they serve.
    Policy decision makers and human resources training institutions must work hand in hand in planning for the health system’s needs. The training in health care that does take place in Cameroon is also seldom matched with employment needs.   
    In 2011, for example, severe staff shortages in the fields of mental health, ophthalmology and anesthesia–resuscitation were known to exist, but almost all health science students at training schools in Cameroon were intending to work as nursing aids, state registered nurses or laboratory technicians in other fields of medicine. The development of human resources for health, both at the undergraduate and post graduate levels needs to respond to the country’s health system’s needs and demand joint work between State and University. Health workers need to develop competence and skills for health promotion and prevention and the incentives for applying them as required.
    Continuing in-service education is crucial for ensuring quality response from the health work force, keeping pace with scientific advances as well as with changes and the complexity of the reality. Health workers with an enabling environment for their development and reflection on their own practices within an interdisciplinary team will be enriched in the interpretation of problems to be addressed and will be amenable to design more effective strategies for their solution.
    Last but not the least, leadership and accountability as well as decentralization within the health sector must not only be a slogan. Cameroonians from all walks of life should be able to hold the government and policy makers to account on health sector spending and ensuring that human resources are prioritized.
    The coordinated use of crime prevention and law enforcement resources to stamp out human trafficking and to liberate the vulnerable especially young female adults and adolescents, from exploitation, as well as to ensure their rehabilitation and effective reintegration into the society, the prosecution of barons or networks involved in this dehumanizing activity and collaboration with relevant national and international agencies is much welcomed at this point in time.  
    However additional measures such as improving the working environment in the health sector will enable Cameroon to stem the tide and protect its citizens particularly the youths from the scourge of human trafficking. These youths will then stay and contribute to development at home.

Sunday, January 10, 2016

Book Review- “Buea: Capital of the Cameroons”: Churchill Monono’s reply to misguided zealots

By Douglas A. Achingale*
Even before President Paul Biya announced that Buea would host the golden jubilee celebration of Cameroon’s reunification, it was clear to all right-thinking Cameroonians that the South West regional headquarters, which had once been the capital of all of Kamerun, was naturally best suited for that purpose. However, some misguided policy makers of this country preferred that the choice of host of the celebration be made amongst towns with “greater credentials” such as Kumba, Bamenda, Douala, Foumban, Mamfe and Mundemba.

And when the 20 February 2014 event came and went, with its major public investment projects that gave the city a new facelift, the selfsame insensate administrators told whoever cared to listen that the said projects had transformed the “village” of Buea into a modern city.

 All of which left Churchill Ewumbue-Monono, a son of the soil and prince of the city, tight-lipped but not indifferent. While the pre-celebration debate raged on and the unfair post-celebration comments about Buea were made, the passionate researcher and prodigious writer rather chose to put his facts quietly together with the ultimate aim of coming up with this enthralling document titled, “Buea: Capital of the Cameroons (Symbol of the Nation and of Reunification)”. This beautifully bound 305-page book is thus the author’s honest yet authoritative reply to those whose view of Buea had been misjudged or antipathetic.

 Writing in his preface about those who held the view that Buea did not deserve to host the golden jubilee celebration, Monono says they acted “either out of bad faith, political expediency or sheer ignorance of the history of reunification…” He equally posits, like other Cameroonians of good sense, that rather than being a “village” as these people claimed, Buea “was an abandoned city, which had suffered disinvestments since the adoption of the unitary state in 1972.”

 He sees President Biya, whom he officially serves as Adviser, as one who has a profound understanding of the powerful symbols and historical significance of Buea as the custodian of Mount Cameroon and the spirit of the nation, and who, on account of this fact, steered clear of the machinations of those misguided administrators and chose the city as the host of the landmark event.

 Both the introduction and Part One of the three-part book present the geo-politico-historic and socio-cultural details of what is today the headquarters of the South West region of Cameroon. In fact, everything you want to know about Buea up till the end of 2014, is contained in this section which constitutes the bulk of the work: from the 870 km2 surface area that it covers on the slopes of Mount Cameroon, through its founding in the 17th century by Eyie Tama Lifanje, to its place and challenges in the scramble for Cameroon and eventually its transformation in the colonial as well as the Ahidjo and Biya administrations. Even the enormous contributions of the remittances of Cameroonians in the Diaspora in giving Buea a new face are highlighted in this section of Monono’s chef d’oeuvre.

 Still in this first part of the book, the author celebrates some illustrious sons of Buea such as P. M. Kale, Motomby-Woleta, Dr. E. M. L. Endeley, Prof. M. Z. Mondinde Njeuma, Chief S. M. L. Endeley, etc., alongside other prominent actors in the reunification drive who served in Buea, such as J. N. Foncha, S. T. Muna, A. N. Jua, etc. He also blithely presents Buea as a citadel of learning, a city of civilization and cultural diversity, a beacon of common law and civil liberties in Cameroon, a city with an international character, and so on and on.

 Far from being mealy-mouthed therefore, Monono paints a true and authentic picture of Buea with utmost fervour. The authenticity of his myriads of facts contained in the book shows him as having an encyclopedic knowledge of the past and present happenings in his native Buea, and his lucid and masterly narrative style confirms the author as a virtuoso story teller with a predilection for minute details. This is hardly surprising, given his lineal descent from some of the most renowned historians in Bakweriland, two of whom furnished him with ample information documented in this work. It was therefore a moral obligation for him to dedicate the book to these two, namely Paul Woloa Esaso-Woletae, his granduncle, and Joseph Evakisse Burnley Luma, his grandfather.

Part Two is a snappy and chronological presentation of the major events that took place in the Buea Municipality from 1841 to 2014, and Part Three a display of historic pictures that tacitly tell the story of Buea. Other such pictures, it should be noted, are equally found in Part One of the work.

Brimful of historical facts and spiced with memorable quotes from seasoned writers, historians and politicians like Mwalimu George Ngwane, Tande Dibussi Jabea, Prof. Willibroad Dze-Ngwa, Kwame Nkrumah, etc., the book provokes in the reader – and particularly past and present inhabitants of Buea – exploding feelings of likeness of and nostalgia for the lovely city. This gives the work an undisputed place in the realm of Arts, in keeping with the view of Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka who posits that, “there is no other human preoccupation that so readily provokes either suppressed or exploding feelings than this singular expression of the human imagination and inventiveness that we call the Arts.”

 On account of what Buea is and what it stands for, there is no doubt in Monono’s mind that this “city on a hill” will play host to the 100th anniversary celebration of Cameroon’s reunification. Hear how the author cuddles the reader’s ears with warm words about the future: “As Buea marches towards celebrating the centenary of the country’s reunification in 2061, or its by-centenary in 2094, the greatest challenge to the town’s destiny will be to preserve its very rich historic heritage alluded to by President Biya in April 1983.” (P. 229)

 All in all, “Buea: Capital of the Cameroons” reveals Monono as the veritable fount of all knowledge on his hometown and the incontestable spokesperson of Buea. As he himself hopes, “this book will be useful to tourists, students of history and political science as well as any person interested in uncovering the myths and marvels of this town…”

 Frank Lloyd Wright once said: “I know the price of success: dedication, hard work and an unremitting devotion to the things you want to see happen.”    Churchill Ewumbue-Monono was certainly devoted to the task of putting the story of Buea in one authoritative and seminal volume. That is the price he paid to achieve this groundbreaking and mammoth success.
 *Douglas A. Achingale is a social worker, poet and researcher in literature at the University of Yaounde I
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Saturday, January 2, 2016

Paul Biya’s 34th New Year Message: As about Nothing as All the Others!

By Tazoacha Asonganyi , Yaounde.

As December wraps up each year, individual politicians and political parties clear their political minds on the year coming to an end, and the advent of a new year. Paul Biya is an epitome of that ritual, which, for him, is usually crowned by a speech to the nation on December 31. Going by the contents of such speeches, year after year, one has the impression that the speeches do not always involve enough thinking,  or that the persons behind it do not always apply their minds to the worn out, failed policies of the year or years that give way in December to the new. Or it may just be that since there is very little he achieves each year, there is usually very little to write home about. In any case, the result is that most of the time, he talks to and for his ego, not to the nation.

On December 31, he set another own-record by delivering his 34th successive New Year Message. Like many of the records he has set and is holding during his long reign, the record is not an enviable one, and would be competed for only by those who want to match or break it by dooming the country!

The longevity in power that has allowed Paul Biya to deliver 34 successive New Year messages has been much helped by an opposition that seems to see politics not through the lens of power, but of sterile argument and charm. Such charm is presented today in the coins of the “camaraderie” of tree-lighting, cross-party backslapping, and other shows of ‘friendship’ which, in essence, have nothing to do with politics because they get nothing done. The opposition has so easily forgotten that the only time anybody is influenced by what you say or do in politics is when they are afraid of you. Nobody fears the opposition any longer, since it behaves like there is no longer any issue to fight on! The Taoist notion that you use the strengths of the opponent to defeat him, or that you use what is against you to build your victory against a powerful opponent, has escaped the opposition completely.

And so Paul Biya has been making successive New Year-cum-state of the nation addresses at the end of each year, up to 34 times, in a country whose development curve has been on the descent for nearly all of those 34 years! When you put all the 34 speeches together, it is easy to conclude that they are from the mind of the same person because they are replete with repetitions, unfulfilled promises, demagogy, sloppy statistics, false claims, and cluelessness on how to set about the difficult task of nation building. In the end, the universal ambition of using politics to get things done is lost, and one has the sorry feeling that he is in politics for its own sake.

The 34 speeches fall in two broad groups. Those in the first group propounded a romantic politics of “communal liberalism” that was based more on appearing and sounding different from his processor than on personal convictions. All this changed with the 1992 attempt of the opposition to capture power, which gave him the fright of his life. It caused his power games to shift from this romanticism to a terrain where he makes a strenuous and confused effort to kill Democracy with ‘democracy’. The second group of the speeches from 1992 to 2015 defines this confused effort.

If you know that the policy and institutional engineering that will propel the developmental changes we need are sorely absent, some of the utterances in the speeches really turn your stomach, leaving it upset with disappointment. When you have absolute power for 34 years, you don’t talk about the policy and institutional changes required to foster development as if you are an opposition leader yearning to get to power and implement them. You show the fruits that the policy and institutional grids you have put in place have borne.
The superficial worries expressed each year in the speeches do not really seem to affect Paul Biya’s soul. When you envision and put a “Vision” or “Strategy” on paper, it is not there for the talking but for the doing. “Industrialization” is not about how to produce raw materials; it is about how to use raw materials. It is about a sound industrial policy framework that is owned by all of us, not by “ruling” parties, political cronies and sycophants. After all, the sustainable development we all want will be delivered by all of us, not by any leader, however wise he/she may be; not by partisan political supporters, however vocal their support may be; not by longevity in power, however long the stay in power may be.

Time usually burns the straws of serious policy, and leaves people like Paul Biya without any real policy. They end up unfocused, saying what they like when they speak, and doing what they like when they do anything. He pretends not to know that what he likes is not what the country likes. He pretends not to know that speech after speech, he provides no real reason to think or hope better for him or for his party.

They used to boastfully mock the rest of us by asking us to go to hell – allez dire! Or they played the role of the gallant caravan cruising along its course, while the rest of us “dogs” barked aimlessly. Now, the whole thing is looking to them like a tinderbox, and most of them seem to be terrified that some disappointed citizen – and they are many! – may just strike a match at any time for the whole thing to come alight. And so they legislate and legislate; and they repress and repress, as if you can stop the feuds you so purposefully engineer with such sleight of hand.

Do not mind the bloated accounts of CRTV, Cameroon Tribune, or other master’s voices about this other speech and the mood of the nation. The speech was as about nothing as the others have always been. Like many of the others, it just reminds us that the cigarette has since been smoked; and what we are seeing is the tobacco ash masquerading as a “Greater” something, without the Great one that would have preceded it! I join the poet to caution:‘people, be not fooled!’

Friday, January 1, 2016

Cameroon's 2016 major challenge is to create conditions conducive for real industrialisation-President Biya

President Paul Biya  made the declaration on December 31, 2015 in his New Year address to the Nation. Following is the president's speech:

My Dear Compatriots,
President Biya addresses Cameroonians Dec 31,2015/ photo credit:PRC
As the year 2015 draws to an end, I would like to invite you, as each year, to review how we have fared as a Nation and to project ourselves into the New Year together, with assurance and determination.
You would agree with me – I believe – that a single word suffices to describe our country during the year that is drawing to an end: RESILIENCE.
    I am referring, as you know, to our people’s capacity to resist and to cope with day-to-day challenges, which is acknowledged by all development partners.
      This attribute, which is fundamental to great Nations, was clearly demonstrated on two major fronts: our country’s economic performance and its security situation.
   Let us begin with economic performance:
As we are all aware, the present global context is characterized, among other things, by:
slow global growth, and
dwindling oil and other commodity prices.
In this adverse global context, our economy was able to hold up well, maintaining its 6% growth forecast and curbing the inflation rate at slightly less than 3%.
Neither the additional expenditure incurred due to the war against terrorism nor the disruption of economic activity in the areas under attack could prevent us from achieving our objectives...
     I am aware that this growth is not yet sufficient to significantly transform the daily lives of our grassroots populations.
We can do better. We must do better.
   However, this excellent effort, which has made our macroeconomic indicators more viable, is commendable.
    I must also mention that this growth made it possible for our economy to generate 337 660 new jobs as at end-November 2015, against 283 443 the previous year.
In this regard, I am pleased to note that 1 175 358 jobs have been created from 2011 to 2015.
Obviously, our needs are overwhelming and far from being fully met. However, we should welcome what has already been achieved, while planning to do better and better.
I will come back to this.
     Concerning the security challenge,
Throughout the year, our Nation put up a fierce resistance to Boko Haram terrorists. At this juncture, I would like to pay a glowing tribute to our defence and security forces, as well as our people. The courage and professionalism of our forces and the commitment and courage of our people have helped to preserve our territorial integrity. Not one centimetre of our territory has been ceded to the aggressors. Better still, we have, on several occasions, inflicted serious military setbacks on them.
Through intense diplomatic activity, we have also been able to rally a wide array of partners to this fight against Boko Haram. We should, as a Nation, express our gratitude to the various friendly countries that are supporting us in this fight.
     In this regard, I would like to specially commend the decision of the United States of America to field 300 troops on an intelligence support mission. We are grateful to them for such mark of confidence in our country and our army.
    Similarly, the multifaceted support received from other friendly countries such as France, China, Russia, Germany and many others, is invaluable.
With neighbouring Nigeria, we have honed our methods and mechanisms for concerted action.
We should equally commend the fraternal commitment of Chadian forces on our side in this collective struggle.
I have always believed that terrorism is a global threat, warranting a global response. This reality was confirmed in 2015.
    For our part, I commend the operationalization of the Joint Multinational Force on the ground. It confirms the effective involvement of all Lake Chad Basin Commission member countries in this fight.
The terrorists, who have been driven into a corner, have now resorted to the hideous practice of suicide bombings.
    Nothing will undermine the resolve of our defence and security forces. Nothing will affect our people’s morale or resilience.
    To deal with the atrocities of Boko Haram, the Nation’s vital forces are mobilized to firmly say NO to terrorism. Better still, they are contributing to the war effort in cash or kind.
Such massive mobilization has given a special significance to our popular defence strategy. The Army and Nation are working in synergy to defend our territory and our sovereignty.
I have had the opportunity to commend the role of vigilante committees backing up our defence and security forces.
    At this juncture, we should salute the memory of our compatriots who lost their lives in this legitimate civil defence exercise.
They put up a patriotic opposition to the senseless brutality of terrorists and made the supreme sacrifice. In that regard, they are role models for our Nation.
My Dear Compatriots,
   After coping so well with the hardships of 2015, lowering our guard now is out of the question.
There are still many challenges on both the economic and security fronts. However, at the dawn of a new year, I urge you to, of course, look to the future with vigilance, but also with confidence and a sense of commitment.
You are aware that our target is set. We must achieve emergence by 2035.
   To that end, we should continue building on our gains in 2016 in order to modernize our country and improve the living conditions of our people.
I have enjoined the Government to work towards this, with imagination, determination and the obligation to deliver.
My main concern remains promoting the quality of life in our society. I am aware that this hinges on improving our people’s purchasing power.
    Despite the current economic hardship, I have instructed the Government to implement two key measures:
-     review pump prices of fuel downward; and
-     review upwards, the amount of family allowances paid to workers.
These measures will take effect on 1 January 2016.
   My Dear Compatriots,
Specific projects await our Nation. We will host the women’s AFCON in 2016 and the men’s AFCON in 2019. To that end, we need appropriate infrastructure. I have instructed the Government to work hard towards that.
   Our key objective remains accelerating economic growth. Our growth should be more robust, more sustainable, more inclusive and capable of generating more jobs for all, particularly our youth. Our people should reap the spin-offs of such growth.
To that end, as I reiterated recently to the Government, the National Growth and Employment Strategy Paper remains our guide.
   The Emergency Plan spells out the immediate priorities, without interfering with the normal economic programme of the Government. 
    I am pleased that this long awaited Three-Year Emergency Plan is now firmly on track and ongoing. The outcomes of the actions under way will soon be visible.
    The major challenge for the country in 2016 will be to create conditions conducive to real industrialization. Emergence is inconceivable without a viable industrial sector.
We have substantial agricultural, mining, tourist, cultural and human resources. They constitute a huge growth potential for our country.
   I have instructed the Government to accelerate the creation of conditions necessary for our country’s industrialization.
Such pre-requisites are:
availability of adequate and permanent energy supply;
modernization of our agriculture and processing of its production;
exploitation and processing of mineral resources;
constant improvement of the business climate to attract more investors;
mobilization of the required financing; and
development of communication and telecommunication infrastructure.
Concerning the last domain, we must rapidly bridge the digital economy development gap. This is a genuine growth driver as well as a niche for new jobs for our youth. We should make the most of it.
In its organization, the Government will give this sector all the attention it deserves.
   My Dear Compatriots,
The task is huge, and the projects are numerous. But, I firmly believe that we can take a great leap forward.
We have the wherewithal.
Through the determination and patriotic commitment of each and every one, I am convinced that we can meet the challenge, in the interests of all.
We should not miss out on this decisive turning point.
The Administration is a vital national instrument at the service of the State and the general interest.  Yet, it is often blamed by its users and by our development partners.
The recent conclusions of the IMF evaluation mission to our country, the respective reports of the latest Doing Business and Cameroon Investment Forum or CONAC are good examples in this regard.
Our Administration should remain a prime mover of progress. I will personally follow this up.
My Dear Compatriots,
The challenges ahead are daunting. With the commitment of all, we can meet them.
I trust the calibre of people who abound in our country...
I know how patriotic you are … 
Let us work together to make 2016:
-      a year full of victories, great victories, for our country ...
-      a year that brings peace, prosperity and happiness to everyone ...
Happy and Prosperous New Year 2016!
  Yaounde, 31 December 201